Hakikazi Catalyst Uses PIMA Cards in Tanzania

This case study looks at how Hakikazi Catalyst in Tanzania implemented a variation of the “citizen report card” to assess the impact of government spending. Hakikazi developed PIMA cards (pima means “measure” in Swahili) to provide a simple, flexible evaluation tool that enables communities to gather qualitative and quantitative information on inputs (what funds did the community receive?), outputs (how were the funds used?), and outcomes (how did the projects affect the community?) of government expenditures on poverty-reduction strategies.

Open Budget Survey 2008

Open Budget Survey 2008

February 2009 | By International Budget Partnership

Open Budget Survey Report 2008The Open Budget Survey 2008 included 85 countries. Independent civil society researchers or research organizations collected the data, which was peer-reviewed and further analyzed by IBP staff.

The Open Budget Survey 2008 found that in most of the countries surveyed the public does not have access to the comprehensive and timely information needed to participate meaningfully in the budget process and to hold governments to account. Download resources below to learn more.

Open Budget Survey 2008 Downloads

Jump to: Full Reports | Key Findings | Open Budget Index Rankings | Methodology | Questionnaire and Guidelines | Datasets | Multimedia Resources

Full Reports

The Open Budget Survey 2008 full report includes information on the Open Budget Survey research methodology, key findings, country budget transparency rankings, and more.

Key Findings

This abbreviated report focuses on key findings from the Open Budget Survey 2008.

Open Budget Index Rankings

The Open Budget Index assigns countries a transparency score on a 100-point scale using questions from the Open Budget Survey. It measures a country’s overall commitment to budget transparency and allows for comparisons among countries.

Methodology

Learn more about the research methodology used for the Open Budget Survey 2008.

Questionnaires

The Open Budget Survey 2008 Questionnaire consisted of 123 multiple-choice questions based on generally accepted good practices related to public financial management. Independent civil society researchers and peer reviewers completing the questionnaires were asked to provide evidence for their responses.

Questionnaire Guidelines

IBP provided researches in each of the 85 countries with the Survey questionnaires as well as these guidelines which described the method to be used in completing the questionnaire and defined the types of evidence to be provided.

Summary of Responses
Other Media

Open Budget Survey Results by Country

Open Budget Survey 2017

Open Budget Survey 2017

January 2018 | by International Budget Partnership

The International Budget Partnership’s Open Budget Survey (OBS) is the world’s only independent, comparative assessment of the three pillars of public budget accountability: transparency, oversight and public participation. The Open Budget Survey 2017 evaluated 115 countries across six continents, adding 13 new countries to the survey since the last round in 2015. Independent researchers in each country evaluated:

  • Budget transparency: the amount, level of detail, and timeliness of budget information governments are making publicly available. Countries are given a score between 0 and 100 that determines their ranking on the Open Budget Index. After 10 years of steady progress by countries, the 2017 survey shows a modest decline in average global budget transparency scores, from 45 in 2015 to 43 in 2017 for the 102 countries that were surveyed in both rounds.
  • Budget participation: the opportunities governments provide to civil society and the general public to engage in decisions about how public resources are raised and spent. The 2017 survey revealed that most countries fail to provide meaningful opportunities for the public to participate in the budget process.
  • Budget oversight: the capacity and authority of formal institutions (such as legislatures and supreme audit institutions) to understand and influence how public resources are being raised and spent. The 2017 survey found that only 32 countries’ legislatures (28 percent) have adequate oversight practices.

Jump to: Full ReportsOpen Budget Index Rankings | Executive Summaries | Key Findings | Country Summaries | Infographic | Methodology | Questionnaire and Guidelines | Datasets | Other Resources

Full Reports

The Open Budget Survey 2017 full report is the most comprehensive resource available on the findings and recommendations of this global assessment of budget transparency, participation, and oversight. It includes detailed information on the key findings, country rankings, research methodology, and more.

Open Budget Index Rankings

The Open Budget Index is the world’s only independent and comparative measure of budget transparency. The Open Budget Index scores each country from 0 to 100, based on the average responses to the 109 indicators the Open Budget Survey uses to measure budget transparency. These indicators are used to assess whether the central government makes eight key budget documents available to the public in a timely manner and whether the information contained in these documents is comprehensive and useful.

Executive Summaries

Adapted from the complete report of the Open Budget Survey 2017, the executive summary brings together the survey’s global findings with recommendations for governments, and civil society, and donors to improve budget transparency, participation, and oversight in budget processes around the world.

Key Findings

This short summary focuses on key findings from the Open Budget Survey 2017.

Country Summaries

Country Summaries

Individual Open Budget Survey country summaries are available for download on each country’s results page.

Infographic

Key findings from the Open Budget Survey 2017, visualized.

Methodology

Learn more about the research methodology used for the Open Budget Survey 2017.

Questionnaires & Questionnaire Guidelines

The results for each country in the Open Budget Survey 2017 are based on a questionnaire, comprising 145 scored questions, that is completed by independent researchers typically based in the country surveyed. Almost all of the researchers responsible for completing the questionnaire are from academic institutions or civil society organizations that have a common interest in promoting transparent and responsive budgeting practices in their countries.

Datasets
Media Resources

Related

Full reports, rankings, and other publications from previous rounds of the Open Budget Survey can be found at the links below:

Is the Open Budget Survey Biased Against Francophone Countries?

Is the Open Budget Survey Biased Against Francophone Countries?

January 2018 | By Ian Lienert, Consultant
open budget survey francophone study
Download in English »
Download in French »

Prior to the Open Budget Survey (OBS) 2015, the average overall Open Budget Index transparency score of francophone countries were much lower than those of comparable non-francophone countries. This led some French-speaking observers to question whether the OBS is biased against francophone countries. To answer the question of whether there are specific features of francophone countries’ PFM system that are not captured by the OBS, or that may result in bias, IBP commissioned public finance expert Ian Lienert to examine:

  • The trends in budget transparency as measured by the Open Budget Index in francophone countries through the OBS 2015.
  • The main factors contributing to the level of fiscal transparency.
  • The specific features of francophone countries that may, or may not, contribute to bias in OBS results.

Downloads

Related

 

Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) Framework Reform

Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) Framework Reform

February 2015 | International Budget Partnership

The Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) program is a multidonor partnership that aims to improve how public finances are managed throughout the world. An important function of the program is to measure the quality of public financial management (PFM) systems, processes, and institutions through the PEFA framework.

In early 2014, PEFA called for submissions on how to revise their framework. Together with civil society organizations (CSOs) from around 50 countries, the International Budget Partnership issued a joint response offering three main recommendations on how the framework could be improved:

  1. Strengthen transparency indicators.
  2. Include a new indicator on public participation in budgeting.
  3. Reinstate donor aid indicators.

In late 2014, PEFA issued a newsflash summarizing the submissions they received. Unfortunately, public participation and aid transparency were not included among the revisions under consideration. IBP then teamed up with Publish What You Fund, the Global Initiative for Fiscal Transparency (GIFT), and others to issue a second response (also available in French and Spanish). Additionally, GIFT submitted a proposal on public participation, developed in collaboration with CSOs.  This proposal (available in English, French, and Spanish) serves as a helpful resource to shape norms and advocacy on public participation.