Budget credibility describes the ability of government to meet its revenue and expenditure targets accurately and consistently. Previous research conducted by the International Budget Partnership and Funky Citizens found that the education sector in Romania receives, on average, 13 percent of total government spending, the second highest share after social protection. However, education is the only sector with recurrent annual deviations, with less actual spending than the approved budget. Higher education in Romania is provided by a range of institutions, universities, institutes, academies, and schools. The latter can be state-owned or private and include military schools.
This study analyses the budget credibility issues in Romania’s education sector by comparing the education expenditure of the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Internal Affairs, and Ministry of National Defence against the approved budget over a five-year period (FY 2018-2022). This brief examines the reasons behind budget deviations in the education sector, and their impact on service delivery, and recommends reforms to improve the implementation of Romania’s education budget. The study uses a mixed method approach, including document reviews (budget statements and annual performance reports) and key informant interviews with officials of the Education Committee of Parliament, directors in the Ministry of Education responsible for budgeting and programming, education system professionals, and civil society representatives.
This publication is a part of Exploring the Connections between Budget Credibility and SDG Implementation.