Transparency and Participation/Accountability?

I was wondering if there is any research out there on the correlation or not between transparency & participation/accountability? Any data/case studies that show that:

1. Improvements in transparency lead to more participation
2. Improvements in participation lead to more transparency
3. These two are not related, so you need to work on both if you want greater accountability.

Data supporting such arguments could help a lot of national and international actors think better about the programs that they design. And by implication make life easier for Civil Society Actors running national campaigns and coalitions?

Any thoughts? Is this a research area that we need to develop further?

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